KNOW THESE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

  • Causes of Pharyngitis:
    • Adenovirus
    • Coxsackie A16
    • Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)
    • Fusobacterium necrophorum
    • Arcanobacterium hemolyticum
    • Candida Albicans
    • Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4)
  • Cause of Diphtheria — Corynebacterium diphtheria
  • Cause of Mumps — Mumps Virus
  • Causes of Sinusitis & Otitis Media:
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenza
    • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Causes of Allergic Rhinitis:
    • Rhizopus species
    • Mucor species
  • Causes of Common Cold:
    • Rhinovirus
    • Coronavirus
    • Adenovirus
  • Cause of Flu — Influenza Virus (NOT Hemophilus influenzae!)
  • Cause of Epiglottitis — Haemophilus influenza type b
  • Cause of Whooping Cough — Bordetella pertussis
  • Cause of Croup — Parainfluenza Virus
  • Cause of Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis — Respiratory Syncytial Virus
  • Cause of Tuberculosis — Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Causes of Typical Pneumonias:
    • Strep pneumo
    • Staph aureus
    • Pseudomonas
    • Burkholderia cepacia
    • Klebsiella
    • E Coli, Proteus
    • Serratia
  • Causes of Atypical Pneumonias:
    • Chlamydophila pneumoniae
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Legionella pneumonia
  • Causes of Regional Pneumonias:
    • Histoplasma
    • Coccidioides
    • Blastomyces
  • Causes of Occupational Pneumonias:
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • Coxiella burnetti
    • Chlamydophila psittaci
    • Francisella tularensis
  • Causes of Opportunistic Pneumonias:
    • Aspergillus
    • Actinomyces israelii
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Nocardia asteroides
    • Pneumocystis carinii
  • Causes of Parasitic Pneumonias:
    • Ascaris lumbridoides
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Paragonimus westermani
  • Other horrible respiratory infections to know:
    • Pneumonic Plague — Yersinia pestis
    • SARS — Coronavirus
    • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — Hantavirus

KNOW THESE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

  • Causes of Non-STD Urethritis/Cystitis:
    • Staph sapro
    • E Coli
    • Proteus
    • Enterococcus fecalis
    • Pseudomonas
  • Causes of STD Urethritis/Cervicitis:
    • Herpes simplex virus
    • Neisseria gonorrhea
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Ureaplasma urealyticum
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Causes of Renal Stenosis:
    • BK Virus
  • Causes of Vaginitis:
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Candida albicans
  • Causes of Bacterial Vaginosis (NOT Vaginitis) — Gardnerella
  • Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Neisseria Gonorrhea
  • Causes of Mucous Membrane Lesions
    • Treponema pallidum
    • Haemophilus ducreyi
    • Klebsiella granulomatis
    • Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3
    • Herpes simplex virus
    • Human papilloma virus

KNOW THESE WORD ASSOCIATIONS FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

  • Non-exudative pharyngitis — ARDS, Adenovirus
  • ARDS — Adenovirus
  • Swimming pool — Adenovirus
  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever — Adenovirus
  • Military recruits — Adenovirus
  • Herpangina — Coxsackie A16 — mouth blisters + fever + sore throat
  • Pharyngitis with Petechial Hemorrhages on Pharynx — Strep pyogenes
  • Pharyngitis with Fatigue and Splenomegaly — Mononucleosis — Epstein Barr Virus
  • Pharyngitis with gingivitis — Fusobacterium
  • Pharyngitis with Exanthem — Arcanobacterium
  • Oral Thrush — Candida albicans
  • Rheumatic Fever and Glomerulonephritis Sequelae — Strep pyogenes
  • BBL PYR test positive — Strep pyogenes
  • Bacitracin sensitive — Strep pyogenes
  • Infects B cells — HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus) (remember HHV-6 Roseola infects B/T cells)
  • Downey cells — Epstein-Barr virus — abnormal T cells that engulf the infected B cells
  • Heterophile Positive — Epstein-Barr virus
  • Jones Criteria — Rheumatic fever — criteria for diagnosis
  • If Strep pyogenes not treated within ten days — Rheumatic Fever (Type II hypersensitivity)
  • Fever, Rash, Carditis, Arthritis — Rheumatic fever
  • Pharyngitis in young kids — Coxsackie
  • Butyric Acid — Fusobacterium necrophorum
  • Buttery odor — Fusobacterium necrophorum — pharyngitis
  • Lemierre syndrome — Fusobacterium — pharyngitis breaks off, lodge in brain, ischemia.
  • Neuraminidase — Thins the exudate — Arcanobacterium, Strep pneumo, Influenza virus
  • Phospholipase D — Arcanobacterium haemolyticum — damages tissue by acting on sphingomyelin
  • Diphteria — Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • Chinese Letter grouping — Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • Only harmful when gene carried by bacteriophage — Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • Iron-dependent transcription of toxin — Diphtheria toxin gene encoded by Corynebacteriophage
  • Disease caused by toxin only — Diphtheria
  • Pseudomembrane — Diphtheria — formed by exudate filled with neutrophils, obstructing breathing.
  • Bull Neck — Diphtheria — Periglandular edema
  • Perforation of Soft Palate — Corynebacterium diphtheria
  • Gray-black colonies on Cysteine-Potassium Tellurite Medium — Corynebacterium diphtheria
  • Black colonies on Cysteine-Potassium Tellurite Medium — Staph aureus
  • F peplomer only — Respiratory Syncytial Virus (vs. mumps, measles, parainfluenza)
  • Parotitis — Mumps — swelling of parotid glands
  • Orchitis — Mumps — swelling of testes or ovaries
  • Symptoms a lot like RSV — Mumps
  • Hemadsorption positive — Mumps (because of H peplomer for hemagluttinin)
  • Hemadsorption negative — RSV
  • Otitis Media — Strep pneumo, H. influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Most Common Cause of Otitis Media — Strep pneumo
  • DNAse Positive — Moraxella catarrhalis (vs. Neisseria)
  • Beta-lactamase positive — Moraxella (so penicillin-resistant)
  • Inhalation of Sporangiospores — Rhizopus, Mucor
  • Rotting fruit, Old bread — Rhizopus, Mucor
  • Risk factor for Mucormycosis — Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Allergic Rhinitis — Rhizopus and Mucor (allergic runny nose)
  • Fatal Allergic Rhinitis — Rhinocerebral mucormycosis — Rhizopus and Mucor fungi. nasal mucosa –> orbits –> brain
  • Branch at 90° — Mucor
  • Rhizoids, no branching — Rhizopus
  • No
  • Rhizoids — Mucor
  • Coenocytic hyphae (aseptate) — Rhizopus and Mucor
  • Branch at 45° — Aspergillus
  • Mycosel Agar — pathogenic fungi (i.e. rhizopus, mucor) because fo chloramphenicol and cyclohexamide
  • Cold + Otitis media — Rhinovirus
  • Cold + diarrhea — Coronavirus
  • Cold + nothing else — Adenovirus
  • Resistant to drying — Rhinovirus
  • Cold in summer/fall — Rhinovirus
  • Cold in winter/spring — Coronavirus
  • Cold all year — Adenovirus
  • Cold caused by enveloped virus — Coronavirus
  • ssRNA replicates in nucleus — Influenza virus
  • Segmented Genome — Influenza virus, Hantavirus
  • HA and NA — Influenza (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase)
  • Fever, Myalgia (NO CONGESTION) — Flu
  • Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) — Treat Flu — Neuraminidase inhibitor for A and B Strains
  • Flu vaccine that induces IgA, IgG, and Secretory IgA — Nasal-spray Flu (vs. Flu shot)
  • Drift — point mutations — epidemics
  • Shift — reassortment of genome — pandemics
  • Epiglottitis — Hemophilus influenza b
  • Thumb sign — Epiglottitis — Hemophilus influenza b
  • Sulfonamide + trimethoprim — treatment for Hemophilus influenza
  • Muffled Voice, Stridor, Drooling — Epiglottitis
  • Whooping Cough — Bordetella pertussis
  • Mucus Accumulates in airways –> uncontrollable cough — Whooping Cough
  • Filamentous hemagglutinin — Bordetella pertussis — lets bacteria adhese to cell
  • Toxin that causes Hypoglycemia, Lymphocytosis, Histamine Sensitivity — Pertussis Toxin
  • Toxin that destroys cilia — Tracheal cytotoxin in Bordetella pertussis (Whooping cough)
  • Catarrhal, Paroxysmal, Convalescent stages — Bordetella pertussis (Whooping cough)
  • Charcoal-Cephalexin Blood Agar (CCBA) — Bordetella pertussis
  • Bordet-Gengou Culture — Bordetella pertussis
  • Regan-Lowe — Bordetella pertussis
  • Nicotinic acid, charcoal, starch needed for culture — Bordetella pertussis (N support growth, C S remove fatty acids)
  • AB Toxin — Diphtheria toxin, Pertussis toxin, Anthrax
  • Croup — Parainfluenza virus
  • Obstruction in Larynx — Croup – parainfluenza virus
  • Raspy cough, voice — Croup – parainfluenza virus
  • Seals Bark Cough — Croup – parainfluenza
  • Steeple Sign — Croup – parainfluenza
  • HAI Test — Hemagglutination Inhibition Test, for Mumps and Croup (because have H, F)
  • Red Button — no agglutination, positive sign on HAI
  • Croup Tent — Parainfluenza virus treatment, using humidification
  • Bronchitis — RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
  • Everyone infected by age 3 — RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
  • Sloughing of cells plug bronchioles — Bronchitis – RSV
  • Substernal Retractions — RSV, due to lower respiratory tract obstructions
  • Bronchodilators, Ribavirin — Bronchitis – RSV
  • Prophylaxis, Palviizumab — RSV prevention

WORD ASSOCIATIONS FOR LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS (PNEUMONIA)

  • Quorum Sensing — Strep pneumo (so it can integrate antibiotic resistance genes)
  • Lobar pneumonia — Strep pneumo (affect lobes, not whole lung)
  • Thin Sputum — due to neuraminidase — strep pneumo, h. influenza
  • Congestion –> Red hepatization –> Gray hepatization –> Resolution — Strep pneumo
  • Typical Pneumonia — extracellular
  • Atypical Pneumonia — intracellular
  • Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) — Staph aureus (pore formation in host cell –> necrotizing pneumonia) from phage.
  • Necrotizing pneumonia — Staph aureus
  • Bilateral Bronchopneumonia — Pseudomonas
  • Proteins A, S, F — Staph aureus (S and F are superantigens)
  • Pus in naturally-existing cavity — Empyema (vs. Abscess, which is pus in a newly-formed cavity)
  • Empyema — Staph aureus
  • Sticky sputum — pseudomonas (due to biofilm)
  • Pneumonia in COPD or CF patients — Pseudomonas, Burkholderia
  • Pseudomonas-like pneumonia with NO PIGMENT — Burkholderia
  • API Strips — lab test used to differentiate Gram negative bacilli
  • Don’t use bacteriocidal due to exotoxins (can lead to shock) — E. Coli
  • R-plasmids (Resistance plasmids) — Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens
  • Red Pigment — Serratia
  • Large Polysaccharide capsule — Klebsiella
  • Currant Jelly Sputum — Klebsiella, thick, blood mucus due to large polysaccharide capsule
  • Pneumonia in homeless, alcoholics, diabetics — Klebsiella
  • Indole negative — Klebsiella (vs. E. coli)
  • Bulging Fissure sign on chest x-ray (Lobar consolidation) — Klebsiella
  • Pneumonia with non-motile bacteria — Klebsiella
  • Pneumonia with very flagellated bacteria — Proteus
  • Urease-positive pneumonia — Proteus (remember nocardia is urease-positive pustule). causes kidney stones
  • Concentric rings of colonization — Proteus (spreads, due to swarming flagella)
  • DNAse, Lipase, Gelatinase — Serratia
  • Lactose-nonfermentor
  • s — Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Proteus
  • Atypical pneumonia in young adults (<40) — Mycoplasma pneumoniae Atypical pneumonia in middle aged adults or smokers — Legionella pneumophila Atypical pneumonia in elderly — Chlamydophila pneumoniae Requires iron and cysteine for growth — Legionella Infects alveolar macrophages/monocytes — Legionella pneumophila Reservoir in amebas — Legionella Pontiac Fever — Legionella (most get pontiac, some get legionnaire’s disease) — just fever, no pneumonia Atypical pneumonia with watery diarrhea — Legionnaire’s disease — Legionella Walking Pneumonia — Mycoplasma pneumoniae Atypical pneumonia + Rhonchi + Reynaud’s phenomenon — Mycoplasma (due to cold agglutination) Fried-Egg or Mulberry appearance — Mycoplasma pneumoniae Atypical Pneumonia + ciliostasis — Mycoplasma pneumoniae (due to P1 adhesin) P1 adhesion — Mycoplasma pneumoniae (causes ciliostasis) Cold agglutination in Serology — Mycoplasma Cell Wall-less Bacteria — Mycoplasma (NOT Mycobacteria, which as acid-fast cell wall) Requires cholesterol supplement on agar — Mycoplasma Massive bilateral infiltrates in Chest Xray — Chlamydophila (pneumoniae and psittaci) Buffered Charcoal Yest Extract Agar (BCYE) — Legionella (needs iron and cysteine for growth) Parrots — Chlamydophila psittaci — causes atypical pneumonia (because intracellular) Paired sera — Chlamydophila, Francisella, SARS Coronavirus Amino acid-based capsule (vs. polysaccharide) — Bacillus anthracis (poly-D-glutamyl capsule) — lets it evade phagocytosis Woolsorter’s Disease — Inhalation Antrax (vs. Eschar) — atypical pneumonia, widened mediastinum, spores go to lymph nodes –> lymphadenitis
  • Widened mediastinum — Bacillus anthracis (Inhalation Anthrax/Woolsorter’s Disease)
  • Only Gram negative with Spores — Coxiella burnetti
  • Phase variation — Coxiella burnetti (Phase 1 infectious), Brucella
  • Q fever — Coxiella burnetti — from sheep/cattle — atypical pneumonia, granuloma in liver (see large liver in xray)
  • Weil-Felix Test Negative — Coxiella burnetti (agglutination negative)
  • Ohio River, Mississippi River Valey — Histoplasma
  • Southwest US, Central and South America — Coccidiodes immitis
  • East of Mississippi river — Blastomyces dermatitidis
  • Spores in Bat guano in soil — Histoplasma
  • Macro/microconidia (spores on ground) –> Yeast (infectious intracellular) — Histoplasma
  • Arthrospores (spores on ground) –> Spherules (infectious intracelluluar) — Coccidiodes
  • Conidiophores (spores in air at room temp) –> Yeast (infectious EXTRACELLULAR at body temp) — Blastomyces
  • Coin lesion, Caseating — Tuberculosis, Histoplasma (look like TB, so differentiate by looking for yeast in alveolar macrophages)
  • Typical Regional Pneumonia — Blastomyces
  • Broad-Based Budding Yeast — Blastomyces
  • Regional Pneumonia affecting pregnant women — Coccidiodes (spherule grow faster with estradiol)
  • Regional Pneumonia affecting more men — Blastomyces
  • Valley Fever/Desert Rheumatism — Coccidiodes immitis (Coccidiodomycosis)
  • Tricks body in thinking it is intracellular, so it brings in T-cell response, leading to granuloma — Coccidiodes immitis
  • Pneumonia with Erythema multiforme and erythema nodosum and Flu-like symptoms — Coccidiodes immitis
  • Pneumonia that disseminates to the skin and CNS (deadly) — Coccidiodes immitis, Nocardia asteroides
  • Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP) — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Extracellular but present as Atypical Pneumonia — Pneumocystis jiroveci (because exudate too thick to cough up)
  • Kill alveolar epithelial cells — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Popular among AIDS patients — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Foamy Exudate — Pneumocystis jiroveci — due to serous exudate + dead epithelial + PMN
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage — Pneumocystis jiroveci — to wash out all that dead epithelial cells, thick exudate
  • Cup-shaped organism — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Ground-glass appearance — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Won’t grow on agar, so use Calcofluor white stain — Pneumocystis jiroveci
  • Mycelium — Aspergillus
  • Neutrophil deficient patients get it — Aspergillus
  • Fungus balls — Aspergillus
  • Air Crescent sign — show invasion of aspergillus in lung
  • Fungal invasion of cavity left by TB — Aspergilloma
  • Farmer’s Lung — Actinomyces israelii
  • Purulent Sputum (pus) — Actinomyces israelii
  • Opportunistic pneumonia that Typical — Actinomyces israelii
  • Pneumonia that is unable to invade healthy cells, so stays opportunistic — Actinomyces israelii
  • Abcesses in lung — Actinomyces israelii (like carbuncle in lung!), Nocardia asteroides
  • Urease Positive — Nocardia (braziliensis and asteroides), Mycoplasma (Ureaplasma), Proteus. (Remember UR NO MY PRO)
  • Kinyoun acid-fast stain — Nocardia asteroides
  • Owl’s eye appearance — CMV
  • Ganciclovir — CMV
  • SARS — Coronavirus (usually in common cold)
  • Bind to ACE 2 receptors — SARS Coronavirus
  • nps1 — SARS Coronavirus — bind ribosome, interfering with mRNA translation
  • Plague — Yersinia pestis
  • Requires Amino Acids for growth — Yersinia pestis
  • Plague via respiratory droplets — Pneumonic Plague (Yersinia pestis) — bloody sputum, productive cough, 90% mortality
  • Plague via fleas — Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) — painful swollen lymph nodes (buboes), bacteremia can lead to pneumonic plague, 75% mortality
  • Plague with bloody sputum — Primary Pneumonic Plague (no progression from bubonic plague)
  • Plague without palpable lymphadenopathy — Septicemic Plague
  • Type III Secretion system — Yersinia pestis (like syringe)
  • YOPs — Yersinia Outer Protein — cause apoptosis of host cell
  • Plasminogen activator protease — Yersinia
  • Field Mouse droppings (aerosolized) — Hantavirus
  • Four Corners Region — Hantavirus
  • Kill Native Americans — Hantavirus — Nonproductive cough, tachypnea, tachycardia, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, death within days.
  • Parasitic Pneumonias — Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Paragonimus westermani (ASK STRONG WESTERNERS)
  • Parasitic pneumonia via fecal-oral — Ascaris
  • Parasitic pneumonia via direct skin penetration — Strongyloides (Threadworm)
  • Parasitic pneumonia via eating raw crustaceans — Paragonimus westermani
  • See trails under skin — Strongyloides
  • Loeffler’s Syndrome — pneumonia-causing worms — migrate through lungs, causing eosinophils to accumulate in lungs.
  • Worms appear in sputum but NOT IN STOOL — Strongyloides (vs. others, where appear BOTH in sputum and stool)
  • Lung Fluke — Paragonimus westermani
  • Slow growing, intracellular, obligate aerobe — tuberculosis
  • Niacin produced — tuberculosis
  • Potts Disease — TB — infects vertebral disc –> collapse
  • Scrofula — TB — swollen cervical lymph nodes in neck
  • Lowenstein-Jensen media — Mycobacterium
  • Positive PPD 5mm — immunocompromised, recent contact with TB
  • Positive PPD 10mm — high prevalence countries, ppl in high-risk settings, IV-drug user, children under 4
  • Positive PPD 15mm — healthy ppl with no known risk factors
  • INH-SPIRE — drugs for TB — Isoniazid (INH) with B6 to prevent INH toxicity, Streptomycin, Pyrazinamide, (INH), rifampin, ethambutol
  • DOT — Directly Observed Therapy — a way to make sure TB patients are adhe
  • ring to treatment so TB won’t develop resistance
  • MDR-TB — multi-drug resistant TB… so treat with fluoroquinolone, kanamycin
  • XDR -TB — extremely drug resistant TB.

WORD ASSOCIATIONS FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

  • Lack urgency or increased frequency to urinate — Urethritis
  • Has urgency or increased frequency to urinate — Cystitis, pyelonephritis
  • No discharge in urine — Cystitis
  • Has discharge in urine — Urethritis
  • Infected kidney — Pyelonephritis — increased urgency/frequency to urinate, nephrolithiasis (kidney stone), FEVER
  • White blood cell in urine — pyuria
  • H and P Fimbrae — E. Coli
  • Fimbrae that contributes to Cystitis — H Fimbrae (HC PP)
  • Fimbrae that contributes to Pyelonephritis — P Fimbrae (HC PP)
  • Most common cause of UTI — E. Coli
  • Coagulase negative Staph — Staph saprophyticus
  • Non-mannitol fermenter Staph — Staph saprophyticus (so colorless on MSA)
  • Urethritis due to overgrowht — Staph sapro (all others autoinoculation or sexual contact)
  • Honeymoon Syndrome — Acute Urethral Syndrome due to Staph sapro with low bacterial count <10^5 Novabiocin resistant — Staph sapro Staghorn calculus on X-ray — Proteus, because it has urease, causing kidney stone Urethritis + Kidney Stone — Proteus, Ureaplasma (aka Mycoplasma), because both have urease. Renal Stenosis — BK Virus (“RSBK”) Renal Transplant, Immunocompromised are risk factors — BK Virus — Renal Stenosis BKAN — BK-associated nephropathy Tubulointerstitial nephritis (space between renal tubules) — BK Virus Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome — Neisseria gonorrhea or Chlamydia trachomatis –> fallopian tube –> liver –> Acute perihepatitis.
  • Violin String adhesion — Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome — between liver and peritonium.
  • Thick, green discharge cervicitis — Gonococcal Cervicitis — Neisseria gonorrhea
  • Thin discharge cervicitis — Nongonococcal Cervicitis — Chlamydia trachomatis D-K
  • Cell-Wall Less urethritis — Ureaplasma (aka Mycoplasma)
  • A8 Agar — Ureaplasma (aka Mycoplasma) — MnSO4 on agar + Urease –> Golden Brown Pigment
  • Golden Brown Pigment — Ureaplasma
  • Acyclovir — Herpes Simplex Virus (Gancyclovir is for CMV)
  • Protozoan Vaginitis — Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Fungal Vaginitis — Candida albicans
  • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) — Gardnerella vaginalis
  • Vaginitis STD — Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Vaginitis due to overgrowth — Candida, Gardnerella
  • Strawberry Cervix — Trichomonas — petechial hemorrhage on cervix
  • Frothy Green-Yellow Discharge — Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Basic Vaginal conditions increase growth — Trichomonas vaginalis
  • “Baked Bread” odor — Candida albicans (vaginitis)
  • “Cottage Cheese” discharge — Candida albicans (vaginitis)
  • “Milk-like” vaginal discharge (THIN DISCHARGE) — Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
  • “Fishy Odor” in Whiff test — Gardnerella — KOH liberates amine-like odor
  • Clue Cells — Gardnerella — bacteria adhering to epithelial cell surface is clue for diagnosis.
  • Serovars D through K — Chlamydia trachomatis that causes urinary tract infections
  • Serovars L1-L3 — Chlamydia trachomatis that causes genital mucous membrane lesions
  • Capnophile — Need CO2 — Hemophilus ducreyi
  • PAINFUL ragged ulcers on genitals — Hemophilus ducreyi — Chancroid (“Do Cry”)
  • Chancroid — Hemophilus ducreyi — PAINFUL (“Do Cry”)
  • PAINLESS soft ulcer on genitals — Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum — Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3 — inguinal lymphadenopathy
  • Groove sign — Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3 — parallel lesions in groin
  • Granuloma venereum — Klebsiella granulomatis — red, painless ulcers on genitals
  • Donovan Bodies — Klebsiella granulomatis
  • Syphilis — Treponema pallidum
  • Lack surface antigens — Treponema pallidum — so very stealthy
  • Gummas — Treponema pallidum — granulomatous lesions all over body caused by immune reaction, TERTIARY STAGE of syphilis
  • Aortitis — cardiovascular syphilis
  • Condyloma lata — Treponema pallidum — SECONDARY STAGE of syphilis (smooth, moist, flat lesions all over body)
  • Rash on palms of hands and feet — Treponema pallidum
  • tabes dorsalis — neurosyphilis — can’t coordinate walking.