KNOW THESE SOFT TISSUE DISEASES

  • Causes of Erysipelas:
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Causes of Folliculitis:
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Candida albicans
  • Abscess vs Furuncle vs Carbuncle:
    • Abscess — collection of pus
    • Furuncle — a boil from infected hair follicle
    • Carbuncle — a bigger furuncle
  • Causes of Abscesses/Furuncles/Carbuncles:
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Actinomyces israelii
    • Pasteurella multocida
  • Causes of Pustules/Pyoderma:
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Bartonella henselae
    • Nocardia brasiliensis
    • Streptobacillus moniliformis
    • Eikenella corrodens
  • Causes of Toxogenic Rash:
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Types of Skin Necrosis:
    • Myonecrosis — necrosis of muscle
    • Necrotizing Fasciitis — necrosis of fascia, epidermis, dermis, (with or without muscle)
    • Gangrene — loss of vascular supply –> loss of tissue mass
  • Causes of Necrotizing Faschiitis:
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Vibrio vulnificans
  • Causes of Ulcers/Granulomas:
    • Francisella tularensis
    • Leishmania
    • Mycobacterium
    • Sporothrix schenckii
    • Dracunculus medinesis (“Guinea Worm”)
  • Causes of Eschar:
    • Spirillum minus
    • Orf virus
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Causes of Cutaneous Hyperkeratosis:
    • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
    • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Causes of Vesicular Lesions:
    • Herpes Simplex 1 and 2
  • Causes of Tineas:
    • Dermatophytes
    • Malassezia furfur
  • Causes of Osteomyelitis:
    • Salmonella
    • Staphyloccus aureus
    • Pseudomonas
  • Causes of Myositis:
    • Trichinella spiralis
  • Causes of Abdominal Infection:
    • Bacteroides fragilis
    • Enterococcus faecalis
    • Prevotella melaninogenica
    • Acinetobacter baumanii

KNOW THESE CNS INFECTIONS

  • Causes of Meningitis:
    • Purulent Meningitis — Neisseria, Strep pneumo, H. influenza
    • Neonatal Purulent Meningitis — E. coli, Strep agal, Listeria
    • Chronic Meningitis — Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Causes of Meningoencephalitis:
    • Primary Amebic Meningitis — Naegleria fowleri
    • Polio — Polio virus
    • African Sleeping Sickness — Trypanosoma brucei
  • Causes of Encephalitis:
    • Arbovirus — “ARthropod-BOurne VIRUS” — Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae
    • Lyme Disease — Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Rabies — Rabies virus
    • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy — JC Virus.
  • Causes of Neuritis:
    • Tetanus — Clostridium tetani
    • Leprosy — Mycobacterium leprae

KNOW THESE WORD ASSOCIATIONS FOR SOFT TISSUE DISEASES

  • Erysipelas — Strep pyogenes
  • Gram positive, Catalase negative, β-hemolytic — Strep pyogenes
  • Streptolysin O — immunogenic, strep pyogenes
  • Impetigo — Strep pyogenes and Staph aureus
  • MSA — Staph aureus — Mannitol Salt Agar
  • Pyocyanin/Pyochelin — Pseudomonas — blue and green pigments
  • Hot Tub Folliculitis — Pseudomonas
  • Otitis Externa — Pseudomonas
  • Blue/Green colonies — Pseudomonas
  • MacConkey’s Agar detects what — detects lactose fermentation
  • Colorless on MacConkey’s Agar — Pseudomonas
  • Mucocutaneous, Oral, Cutaneous, Erosio interdigitalis, and Onychomycosis forms — Candidiasis
  • Sulfur Granules in pus — Actinomyces israelii
  • Woody, lumpy skin — Actinomyces israelii
  • Molar tooth shaped colony — Actinomyces israelii
  • Bipolar Staining — Pasteurella multocida, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella granulomatis (BYPASS YOUR CLUB)
  • Non-bipolar Staining — Bartonella henselae
  • Cat Scratch with Fever — Bartonella henselae — Cat Scratch Fever
  • Cat Scratch no Fever — Pasteurella multocida
  • Leukotoxin, ToxA — Pasteurella (Pastor’s cat is soft but toxic!!!)
  • Soft Abscess with Lymphadenopathy — Pasteurella multocida
  • Look like Safety Pins — Pasteurella multocida
  • Marble Abscess — Staph aureus
  • Non-acid fast Carbuncle — Actinomyces israelii
  • Weak acid fast Carbuncle — Nocardia brasiliensis
  • Contagious, Exudative Rash without Fever — Impetigo
  • Bacillary angiomatosis — Bartonella henselae, which also causes Cat Scratch Fever
  • Warthin Starry’s Silver Stain — Bartonella
  • Cherry angioma-like lesion — Bacillary angiomatosis, Bartonella
  • Don’t Culture, because takes 40 days to grow — Bartonella
  • trehalose dimycolate — aka cord factor, makes acid-fast cell walls acidic
  • Cord Factor — aka trehelose dimycolate, makes acid-fast cell walls acidic
  • Resembles Kaposi’s Sarcoma — Bartonella henselae
  • Urease-positive Pustule — Nocardia brasiliensis
  • Nodular Lymphangitis — Nocardia brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenkii (NO NO SPO)
  • Acid-Fast Cell Wall — Nocardia brasiliensis, Mycobacterium
  • Pustule from Soil — Nocardia brasiliensis
  • Cats cause Pustule — Bartonella
  • Cats cause Carbuncle — Pasteurella
  • Rat Bite Fever — Streptobacillus moniliformis — rate bites, then pustules forms 10 days after, also Spirillum minus.
  • bead-like chain — Streptobacillus moniliformis
  • Fist Fight — Eikenella corrodens
  • Urease-negative Pustule — Eikenella
  • Air pockets in soft tissue — Eikenella
  • Smells
  • like Beach — Eikenella
  • Scalded Skin Disease — aka Ritter’s Disease — Staph aureus
  • Ritter’s Disease — aka Scalded Skin Disease — Staph aureus
  • Nikolsky’s Sign — Ritter’s Disease, Scalded Skin Disease — Staph aureus
  • bullae due to toxins — Scalded Skin Disease
  • diffuse maculopapular rash due to toxins — Toxic Shock Syndrome
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome — Staph aureus or strep pyogenes
  • Tampons — Toxic Shock Syndrome — Staph aurues or strep pyogenes
  • Toxigenic Rash without fever — Scalded Skin Disease
  • Toxigenic Rash with fever — Toxic Shock Syndrome
  • Toxigenic Rash in Kids — Scalded Skin Disease (staph aureus)
  • Myonecrosis/Necrotizing Fasciitis — Strep pyogenes
  • Myonecrosis/Gas Gangrene — Clostridium perfringens (anaerobe)
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis only — Vibrio vulnificus
  • Anti-Streptolysin O Screen — Strep pyogenes
  • Lecithinase — Clostridium perfringens
  • RTX Toxin — Vibrio vulnificus
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis from Respiratory Droplets — Strep pyogenes
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis from spores in soil on wound — Clostridium perfringens
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis from sea water on wound — Vibrio vulnificus
  • Gram Negative Necrotizing Fasciitis — Vibrio vulnificus
  • α-toxin — aka lecithinase, Clostridium perfringens.
  • Nagler Reaction — Clostridium perfringens — detects lecithinase
  • Marine Water — vibrio vulnificus
  • Curved Rod — Vibrio vulnificus
  • Siderophores — Vibrio vulnificus — a type of hemolysin
  • rabbits — Francisella tularensis
  • Ulcer by tick — Francisella
  • Sand Fly — Leishmania
  • Kala Azar — Leishmania
  • Oriental Sore — Leishmania
  • Arkansas — Francisella
  • Need Cysteine — Francisella tularensis
  • Tularemia — Francisella
  • Ulceroglandular and Oculoglandular — Tularemia — Francisella
  • Promastigote/Amastigote — Leishmania
  • Non-caseating granuloma — Type IV Mycobacterium
  • Rose thorns — Sporothrix schenckii
  • Cigar-Shaped Yeast — Sporothrix schenckii
  • Thermally dimorphic — Sporothrix schenckii
  • Sinus Tracts — Salmonella (Osteomyelitis), Sporothrix schenckii
  • Guinea Worm — Dracunculus medinesis
  • Copepods — Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinesis)
  • Animal Hide/Soil Spores — Bacillus Anthracis
  • Eschar on Taxidermist — Bacillus Anthracis
  • Eschar on Farmer — Orf Virus
  • Eschar on Immunocompromised — Pseudomonas
  • Virus from Oxen, Deer — Orf Virus
  • Long-Term Treatment for Eschar — Bacillus Anthracis
  • Self-Limiting Eschar — Orf virus
  • Combo Antibiotics Eschar — Pseudomonas
  • EF/LF/PA exotoxins — Bacillus anthracis — Edema Factor/Lethal Factor/Protective Antigen
  • Resemble Brown Recluse Spider bite — Bacillus anthracis, Orf virus
  • Painless Eschar — Bacillus anthracis
  • Painful Eschar — Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Ecythema gangrenosa — Pseudomonas eschar
  • Rate Bite Fever — Spirillum minus — eschar, fever…. also streptobacillus minus
  • Warts — Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
  • Double Stranded Circular DNA, nonenveloped– HPV
  • E6, E7 — HPV — inactivates p53, causes cancer
  • HPV 6, 11 — Genital Warts
  • HPV 16, 18 — Cervical Cancer
  • Koilocytes — HPV — shrunken nucleus in vacuole
  • Henderson-Paterson Bodies — Molluscum Contagiosum (Eosinophilic inclusion bodies)
  • Vesicular Lesions — Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2
  • Gingivostomatitis — Cold Sores — Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Genital Herpes — Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Herpetic Whitlow — Herpes Simplex Virus – lesions on fingers
  • Herpes at Trigeminal Ganglion — Gingivostomatitis
  • Herpes at Sacral Ganglia — Genital Herpes
  • Herpes at Brachial Ganglia — Herpetic Whitlow
  • Tzanck Smear — Herpesviridae
  • HSV-1 — oral herpes
  • HSV-2 — genital herpes
  • Third Trimester or Perinatal Infection — HSV — C-section
  • Reactivated by UV, trauma to skin — Herpes Simplex Virus
  • MTE Triad — The Dermatophyes — Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
  • Septated Hyphae — The Dermatophyes, aspergillus (vs. Mucor and Rhizopus)
  • Arthrospores — The Dermatophyes
  • Hair fluoresce under Woods Lamp — Microsporum (The Dermatophyes)
  • Yeast Benign, Mold pathogenic — Malassezia furfur, opposite of sporothrix schenckii
  • Tinea Versicolor — Malassezia furfur
  • Azelaic Acid and Malassezin — Malassezia furfur — A –> block melanin synth. M –> apoptosis of melanocytes
  • Hypopigmented Skin Fluoresce under Woods Lamp — Malassezia furfur
  • Pruritic Tinea — The Dermatophyes
  • Nonpruritic Tinea — Malassezia furfur
  • Tinea corporis — Ring Worm — The Dermatophyes
  • Technetium-99 Pyrophosphate — Osteomyelitis — test to see where bone infections are
  • Gram Negative Oxidase Negative — Salmonella, E. Coli, Klebsiella
  • H2S — Salmonella
  • Green Colonies with Black Dot on Hektoen Agar — Salmonella
  • Antibiotics don’t work — Salmonella
  • Myositis — Trichinella spiralis
  • Raw Pork — Trichinella
  • Gram Positive Abdominal Infection — Enterococcus faecalis
  • ENT Bile-Esculin Agar — Enterococcus faecalis
  • BBE Bile-Esculin Agar — Bacteroides fragilis
  • Lancefield Group D — Enterococcus faecalis (DEF)
  • High Dose Antibiotics Needed — Enterococcus faecalis
  • Heparinase, Succinic Acid — Bacteroides fragilis
  • Heparinase action– promote thrombophlebitis
  • Succinic acid action — resists phagocytosis
  • Heparinase, Collagenase — Prevotella melaninogenica
  • Combo Antibiotics in Abdominal Infection — Enterococcus faecalis
  • Combo Antibiotics — Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • No Lipid A in LPS — Bacteroides fragilis

KNOW THESE WORD ASSOCIATIONS FOR CNS DISEASES

  • Maltose AND Glucose fermentation — Neisseria meningitidis (vs. gonorrhea, Glucose fermentation only)
  • Meningitis preceded by Respiratory Illness — Neisseria meningitidis
  • Meningitis preceded by Head Trauma — Hemophilus influenza
  • Pneumolysin — Strep Pneumo
  • Kernig’s Sign, Brudzinski’s Sign — Meningitis
  • Meningococcemia — Neisseria meningitidis
  • Pneumococcal Meningitis — Strept pneumo
  • Childhood Purulent Meningitis — Hemophilus influenza
  • Optochin Sensitive — Strep Pneumo
  • Encapsulated and Unencapsulated forms — Hemophilus influenza (Hib vaccine targets capsular form)
  • Group A Strep — Strep pyogenes
  • No Group Strep — Strep pneumo
  • Group B Strep — Strep agalactiae
  • Hippurate hydrolysis — Strep agalactiae and Listeria monocytogenes
  • Camp Positive — Strep agalactiae, List mono, Campylobacter
  • Cold Enrichment — List mono, Yersinia pestis
  • Act A — List mono
  • Indole Positive — E. Coli (vs. Klebsiella, differentiate in pneumonia)
  • Lactose fermenting on MacConkey’s Agar — E. coli (vs. Pseudomonas)
  • Soft Cheeses (cold) — List mono
  • Chronic Meningitis — Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Pigeon droppings — Crypt neo
  • Meningitis in HIV patients — Crypt neo
  • GXM capsule — Crypt neo
  • Mannan/Melanin products — Crypt neo
  • Soap Bubble Lesions in Brain — Crypt neo
  • Fungal meningitis — Crypt neo
  • Primary Amebic Meningitis (PAM) — Naegleri fowleri
  • Warm Water — Naegleri fowleri
  • Enters through Cribiform Plate — Naegleri fowleri
  • Olfactory Hallucinations — Naegleri fowleri
  • Feeding Cups virulence factors — Naegleri fowleri
  • Negative sense ssRNA viral encephalitis — Bunyaviridae, Rabies
  • Helical viral encephalitis — Bunyaviridae (toga and flavi both icosahedral)
  • Encephalitis from horses via mosquito — Togaviridae
  • Encephalitis from birds via mosquito — Flaviviridae
  • Encephalitis from rodents via mosquito — Bunyaviridae
  • Venezuelan/Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis — Togaviridae
  • St. Louis/West Nile/Japanese Encephalitis — Flaviridae
  • LaCrosse Encephalitis — Bunyaviridae
  • Viral Encephalitis in Elderly — Flaviviridae
  • Viral Encephalitis in Children — Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae
  • Gram negative Spirochete — Borrelia
  • White Foot Mouse and White Tail Deer –> Ticks — Borrelia burgdoferi
  • Lyme Disease — Borrelia burgdoferi
  • Bull’s Eye Rash — Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdoferi) (Bull’s Eye Rash –> Bell’s Palsy –> Stiff Joints –> Encephalitis)
  • Rhabdoviridae — Rabies
  • Protein G — Rabies (needed to get into neurons)
  • Negri Bodies — Rabies
  • Human Diploid Cell Vaccine (HDCV) — Rabies
  • Days 1,3, 7, 14 — Rabies vaccination treatment (HDCV)
  • dsDNA Naked virus — JC Virus
  • 80% of people seropositive –JC Virus, CMV, BK Virus
  • Replicate in Tonsils — JC Virus
  • Demyelinating Disease –> Personality Change — JC Virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) — JC Virus
  • Non-enhancing white matter lesions — JC Virus
  • Picornaviridae Family — Coxsackie, Polio
  • Iron Lung — Polio
  • Attack Anterior Horn Cells in Spinal Cord — Polio
  • Flaccid Paralysis — Polio, Botulism
  • binds CD155 — Polio (CD155 in spinal cord cells)
  • Inactive Polio Vaccine — Salk Vaccine
  • Live Polio vaccine — Sabin Vaccine (NO LONGER USED IN US)
  • Most Common Polio Serotype — Type I
  • Tetanus – Clostridium tetani
  • Gram positive Spore-forming Anaerobe — Clostridium
  • Tennis Racket Appearance — Clostridium tetani
  • Spastic Paralysis — Tetanus
  • Risus Sardonicus — Lockjaw — Tetanus
  • Opisthotonos — Back Spasm — Tetanus
  • Treat with GABA agonist — Clostridium tetani (Tetanus) (treat with Benzodiazepines)
  • Infects Umbilical Stump in neonates — Clostridium tetani
  • Inhibits inhibitory neurons — Tetanospasmin (degrades synaptobrevin)
  • Hansen’s Disease — Leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae)
  • Leprosy — Mycobacterium leprae
  • Armadillos — Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
  • Loss of Eyebrows, Nasal Collapse, Lumpy Earlobes — Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy)
  • Leprosy with Strong Cellular Response — Tuberculoid Leprosy
  • Leprosy with Strong Humoral Response — Lepromatous Leprosy
  • Lepromin Positive — Tuberculoid Leprosy
  • Lepromin Negative — Lepromatous Leprosy
  • Leprosy with asymmetrical macular rashes — Tuberculoid Leprosy
  • Leprosy with symmetrical nodular lesions — Lepromatous Leprosy
  • Self-Limiting Leprosy — Tuberculoid Leprosy
  • Lethal Leprosy — Lepromatous Leprosy
  • Infects Lower-temperature body parts — Leprosy
  • PGL-1 capsule — Leprosy (allows survival in tissue macrophages)
  • Dapsone — Leprosy treatment
  • African Sleeping Sickness — Trypanosoma brucei
  • Tsetse Fly — Trypanosoma brucei
  • Trypomastigote injected form — T. brucei
  • Chancre –> Cachexia –> Coma — African Sleeping Sickness (T. brucei)
  • Winterbottom’s Sign — African Sleeping Sickness (T. brucei) — Posterior cervical lymph node swollen
  • Suramin and Melarsoprol — African Sleeping Sickness treatment (T. brucei)
  • Dog Tapeworm — Echinococcus granulosus
  • Ingest dog feces with hydatid cyst — Dog Tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus (calcifies in brain)